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E-Book

Geographic Location in the Internet

AutorBehcet Sarikaya
VerlagSpringer-Verlag
Erscheinungsjahr2002
Seitenanzahl233 Seiten
ISBN9780306475733
FormatPDF
KopierschutzDRM
GerätePC/MAC/eReader/Tablet
Preis128,95 EUR
"Geographic Location in the Internet" discusses how to find the location of mobile devices in the wireless Internet, specifically those that involve the determination of the geographic location of mobile devices. 2G systems of GSM, GPRS and 3G systems of UMTS and cdma2000, and other link technologies and an extensive description on how numerical location of the mobile can be tracked real-time also are discussed. "Geographic Location in the Internet" covers Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) related geographic location tracking as it relates to multimedia applications. The recent application-layer protocols for communicating the location information from the mobile device to the applications such as multimedia applications are also covered. Mobile Location Protocol (MLP) of the Location Information Forum (LIF) allows access of the geographic location information to the applications using Web protocol of HTTP. The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) forum also defined a technical specification for location-based services, which is discussed in detail. A detailed analysis of the location update mechanisms covers various technical issues in location database design, and protocols are compared using simulations and providing provocative conclusions.

Geographic search engines utilizing location data that enable users to make location related queries on the Web are also covered. The book has exclusive coverage of the technical aspects of privacy such as linkability, credentials, pseudonyms, anonymity and identity management. Different scenarios are defined for the targets, owners, location servers and location data sources and the privacy implications are emphasized.  

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Horizontale Tabs

Leseprobe
Chapter 6 Geographic Search Engines (p.143-144)

Andrew Daviel,
Felix Kaegi
Geotags, Inc


1. INTRODUCTION

Most people now are familiar with the concept of a "Search Engine" on the Internet, such as Google or the original WebCrawler. These search engines perform what is termed "open text" search, where the user enters some keywords or phrases, and the search engine returns a list of pages that contain one or more of them.

Many people are also familiar with the concept of a Metadata search, though they may not realize it. Most public libraries have an index, usually now on computer, and the user can search it for particular items. It is not possible to search for phrases within books, instead one must search for information about a book, such as Author, Subject or Title. These entries are termed Metadata (data about data) and in libraries have historically been compiled manually.

HTML documents have historically contained only one explicit item of metadata - the title - but may optionally contain arbitrary metadata using the HTML META element, most commonly Description and Keywords. Opentext search engines such as Google index some of this metadata, but treat it as part of the text (although some elements such as Title may be preferentially weighted compared to words in the body of the document)

A text search is not the only possible form of search, however, although it is now the most ubiquitous. For instance, a researcher might wish to find places which have less than ten centimetres of rainfall a year, or a motorist may wish to find the nearest service station. This kind of search is usually done with a database where it is known that certain fields have specific properties, such as being numeric.

The Geotags search engine described here is an example of a locationbased search engine - that is, one that can answer the question "Where is the nearest restaurant ?".

2. HTML MARKUP

While a normal search engine ranks pages according to their relevancy and popularity, the Geotags search engine ranks them according to their distance from a particular point. For this to be possible, each page must be identified with a geographic position. Currently, it is required that each page submitted to the search engine to be indexed must include geographic metadata in the form of HTML META elements. The META element is familiar to a majority of document authors since keywords and description identifiers may be used to influence many search engine results.

The format of position data used for the search engine was chosen to be simple, compact and unambiguous, since it is believed that in many cases this data will be transcribed from navigation units, gazetteers or other documents and manually added to web pages. Two elements are used; a (Latitude, Longitude) coordinate pair given in decimal degrees of arc, and a region code taken from either ISO 3166-2 or ISO 3166-1.

These region codes form a restricted vocabulary that is unambiguous and suitable for machine interpretation. These two metadata elements may be easily added to existing HTML or emerging XHTML documents, and are in a standard form understood by many HTML authoring software packages and human authors. The following are examples of the position and region elements:
Blick ins Buch
Inhaltsverzeichnis
Contents6
Contributors12
Acknowledgements15
Preface17
Chapter 1 Location Based Services20
1. INTRODUCTION20
2. LOCATION BASED SERVICES21
3. LBS PROTOTYPES22
4. APPLICATION PROGRAMMING INTERFACES23
4.1 CDMA2000 LBS Applications23
4.2 MLP26
5. SUMMARY29
6. REFERENCES30
Chapter 2 Geolocation on Cellular Networks32
1. INTRODUCTION32
2. EXISTING AND FUTURE CELLULAR NETWORK TECHNOLOGIES33
3. GSM AND ITS SUCCESSORS35
4. THE GSM LOCATION SERVICES FRAMEWORK40
5. MOBILE POSITIONING METHODS45
5.1 Cell Identity46
5.2 Time of Arrival and Time Difference of Arrival47
5.3 Enhanced Observed Time Difference49
5.4 Observed Time Difference of Arrival with Idle Periods in the Downlink51
5.5 Advanced Forward Link Trilateration51
5.6 (Assisted) Global Positioning System52
5.7 Comparison of the Positioning Methods54
6. GEOGRAPHICAL AREA DESCRIPTION56
7. POSITIONING PROCEDURES IN THE LOCATION SERVICES FRAMEWORK58
7.1 Mobile Originating Location Request (MO-LR)59
7.2 Mobile Terminating Location Request (MT-LR)61
7.3 Mobile Terminating Deferred Location Request (Deferred MT-LR)63
7.4 Network Induced Location Request (NI-LR)64
8. SUMMARY64
REFERRED STANDARDS67
Chapter 3 Location Service in CDMA2000 Networks70
1. INTRODUCTION70
2. LOCATION SERVICE BASED ON IS-41 NETWORK72
2.1 IS-41 Based Network Reference Model for Location Service72
2.2 Location Service Control73
2.3 Position Determination74
2.4 Location Service Procedure75
2.4.1 Registration Procedure75
2.4.2 Location Information Retrieval Procedure75
2.4.3 MS Assisted Position Determination Procedure77
2.5 Application Examples79
2.5.1 Find Nearest McDonald Restaurant79
2.5.2 Emergency Service Call80
3. LOCATION SERVICE IN ALL-IP NETWORK81
3.1 All-IP Network Reference Model for Location Service81
3.2 Position Service Registration in All-IP Network83
3.3 Location Service Scenario84
4. CONCLUSION85
References86
Chapter 4 Application of Location Information to SIP88
1. INTRODUCTION88
2. THE SESSION INITIATION PROTOCOL89
2.1 The SIP Protocol90
2.2 The SIP Architecture91
2.3 SIP in Wired Networks94
2.3.1 SIP within ISP94
2.3.2 Providing Location Data in Wired Networks94
2.4 SIP in Wireless Networks95
2.4.1 UMTS Architecture95
2.4.2 Provisioning Location Data in UMTS networks98
3. SIP SERVICE PROVISIONING98
3.1 SIP Mechanisms for Services Provisioning99
3.2 SIP Services Provisioning100
3.3 Architecture and Data Formats for Location Information100
3.3.1 Location Interoperability Forum101
3.3.1.1 Mobile Location Protocol Specification104
3.3.1.2 LIF Service Example105
3.3.1.3 LIF Location Structure106
3.3.2 WAP Forum107
3.3.2.1 WAP Service Example109
3.3.2.2 WAP Location Structure110
3.3.3 Spatial Location Information in Fixed IP Networks111
3.4 Location Based Services Scenarios113
3.4.1 Emergency Call114
3.4.2 Location Based Supplementary Services118
3.4.2.1 Push Services118
3.4.2.2 Pull Services119
3.4.3 Service Discovery121
3.4.4 Security at SIP Layer121
4. CONCLUSION123
4.1 Security123
5. REFERENCES124
Chapter 5 Protocols for Updating Highly Accurate Location Information130
1. INTRODUCTION130
2. BACKGROUND132
2.1 Positioning Sensors132
2.2 Network Environment132
3. UPDATE PROTOCOLS133
3.1 Classification134
3.1.1 Querying Protocols134
3.1.2 Reporting Protocols136
3.1.3 Combined Protocol139
3.2 Behavior in Case of Disconnection140
3.2.1 Querying Protocols141
3.2.2 Reporting Protocols141
3.2.3 Combined Protocol141
3.3 Summary141
4. ANALYTICAL COMPARISON OF THE PROTOCOLS142
4.1 Location and Uncertainty Model144
4.2 Querying Protocols146
4.3 Reporting Protocols147
4.4 Combined Protocol149
4.5 Discussion150
5. SIMULATION RESULTS154
6. CONCLUSION158
Literature159
Chapter 6 Geographic Search Engines162
1. INTRODUCTION162
2. HTML MARKUP163
3. WEB TRAVERSAL AND INDEXING164
4. SEARCH ALGORITHM165
5. PRESENTATION14166
6. MAP CACHING168
7. MOBILE APPLICATIONS169
8. GEOGRAPHIC DATUM170
9. ADVANCED GEOGRAPHIC SEARCHING170
9.1 Keywordless Searching171
9.2 Keywordless Search Algorithms172
9.3 Applications of Keywordless Search173
9.4 Zipcode Searching176
10. PROPERTY RIGHTS ISSUES177
11. REFERENCES177
Chapter 7 The Elements of Location Tracking and Privacy Protection182
1. THE CRITICAL NEED FOR PRIVACY PROTECTION182
2. DIVERSITY OF LOCATION SERVICE SCENARIOS184
2.1 Open or Closed Location Environments184
2.2 Tracking a Person or a Thing185
2.3 Fixed or Mobile Locations185
2.4 Private or Public Raw Location Data186
3. THE ELEMENTS OF LOCATION COMPUTATION187
3.1 A Framework to Describe Location Computation Scenarios187
3.2 The Basic Location Computation Scenarios189
3.3 Examples of Scenarios190
4. AFTER THE LOCATION COMPUTATION191
5. PRIVACY RULES AND THEIR ENFORCEMENT192
5.1 General Elements of Privacy192
5.2 Specific Elements of Location Privacy193
5.3 A Critical Need for Strong Default Privacy Rules194
5.4 Implications of the Location Computation Scenarios195
5.5 Possible Technological Considerations196
6. CONCLUSION197
7. REFERENCES197
Chapter 8 Location Information Privacy198
1. OVERVIEW198
2. MOTIVATION: THE PROBLEM200
3. FRAMEWORK: ENTITIES, FLOWS, SCENARIOS201
3.1 Entities201
3.2 Data204
3.2.1 Sighting204
3.2.2 Location205
3.2.3 Identities and Credentials206
3.2.4 Policies207
3.3 Data Flows208
3.4 Scenarios209
3.4.1 Scenario 1: The Handset-based Solution210
3.4.2 Scenario 2: A Network-Based Location Data Source211
3.4.3 Scenario 3: External Location Server212
3.4.4 Scenario 4: External Location Server and Location Recipients213
3.4.5 Scenario 5: External Location Data Source and Location Server214
3.4.6 Scenario 6: Untrusted Local Location Server216
4. IDENTITY MANAGEMENT216
4.1 Privacy: Definitions216
4.1.1 Other considerations218
4.1.1.1 Traffic Analysis218
4.1.1.2 Related Privacy-Protecting Efforts218
4.2 Identity of Users, Location Recipients219
4.2.1 Public Identities219
4.2.2 Private Identifiers222
4.2.3 Some Realizations of the Identity/credential Requirements224
5. SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS225
6. REFERENCES227
Index232
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