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German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht.

Vol. 31 (1988).

VerlagDuncker & Humblot GmbH
Erscheinungsjahr2013
Seitenanzahl741 Seiten
ISBN9783428467181
FormatPDF
KopierschutzWasserzeichen/DRM
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Preis125,90 EUR

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Inhaltsverzeichnis
Contents6
ARTICLES10
Gennady M. Danilenko: The Theory of International Customary Law10
I. Custom as a Source of International Law10
1. The Concept of International Custom10
2. International Custom as a Law-making Process: The Significance of Agreement (Consensus)12
3. International Custom as a Law-making Process: The Consciousness of Law-making15
4. International Custom as a Law-making Process: The Legal Regulation17
II. Elements of International Custom20
1. Practice and opinio iuris: The Relationship20
2. International Practice21
a) Subjects of Practice21
b) The Practice of States: The Organs of Practice22
c) Practice: The Types of Acts24
d) Resolutions of the UN General Assembly26
e) International Treaties27
f) Active and Passive Customary Practice29
g) Requirements of Practice30
3. Opinio iuris32
a) The Concept of opinio iuris32
b) Opinio iuris: Modes of Manifestation35
c) UN General Assembly Resolutions and opinio iuris37
d) Treaty Practice and opinio iuris39
e) Conditions of Realisation of Individual opinio iuris40
f) Individual opinio iuris: The Principle of the Persistent Objector42
g) Opinio iuris: New States44
h) Opinio iuris: The Change of Customary Law46
III. Conclusion47
T. W. Bennett: A Linguistic Perspective of the Definition of Aggression49
W. Benedek and K. Ginther: Planned-Economy Countries and GATT: Legal Issues of Accession71
I. Introduction71
II. Basic Legal Issues of Accession to GATT72
1. GATT as a Multilateral Treaty with an Open Membership72
2. Is GATT an International Organization of a Universal Vocation?75
3. .Bona fide.-negotiations78
III. The Participation of Planned-Economy Countries in the GATT80
1. Preliminary Considerations on Terminology80
2. Reasons for planned-economy countries’ interest in GATT81
3. Contents and Performance of the Special Protocol Approach83
a) The Contents of the Special Protocols of Accession84
aa) The Selective Safeguards Clause84
bb) Special Consultation Procedure85
cc) Special Surveillance86
dd) Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Procedures86
ee) The Issue of Quantitative Restrictions86
ff) The Special Relations Among Members of the CMEA87
b) The Issue of Accompanying Bilateralism88
c) Conclusions89
4. Proposals for Improvement of the Accomodation of PECs in the GATT91
a) Effective Reciprocity92
b) Improving GATT Rules92
c) ‘Investment Approach‘ with Strengthened Surveillance93
5. China, the Soviet Union and Bulgaria as Challenges to the GATT Treatment of Accessio94
a) China's Application for Resumption of Active Membership95
b) The New Soviet Interest in GATT97
c) The Case of the Bulgarian Accession Request100
aa) The History of Bulgaria’s Request100
bb) General Economic and Legal Issues Raised with the Bulgarian Request101
cc) Accession on a Normal Basis?103
dd) Legal Aspects and Conclusions Regarding the Bulgarian Approach Towards Accession104
IV. General Conclusion106
Fernando Zegers Santa Cruz: Deep Sea-bed Mining Beyond National Jurisdiction in the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: Description and Prospects108
I. Introduction108
II. Deep Sea-bed Beyond National Jurisdiction: ‘Common Heritage of Mankind‘108
III. The International Sea-bed Authority: Part XI of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea109
1. Financial Provisions111
2. Protection of Land-Based Mining112
3. The International Sea-bed Authority113
IV. Pioneer Investor Protection114
V. Actual Situation and Prospects117
VI. Conclusion119
Francisco Orrego Vicuña: The Contribution of the Exclusive Economic Zone to the Law of Maritime Delimitation121
I. Introduction121
II. Distance .. Natural Prolongation: The Basis of Entitlement122
1. Structural Changes in the Conventional Régime122
2. Changing Trends in Judicial and Other Decisions123
III. The Trend Toward a Single Maritime Boundary125
1. Conceptual Approaches126
2. Influence of the Decisions of Courts and Other Settlements127
3. The Evolving State Practice130
IV. The Search for Equitable Principles in the Context of the Exclusive Economic Zone Régime132
1. The Role of the Courts in the Search for Equity132
2. Functional Nature of Delimitation Criteria134
3. Delimitation Agreements in State Practice136
V. The Emerging Law of Maritime Delimitation: A Conclusion137
Myron H. Nordquist and Margaret G. Wachenfeld: Legal Aspects of Reflagging Kuwaiti Tankers and Laying of Mines in the Persian Gulf139
Overview139
I. The Reflagging141
1. Introduction141
2. International Standards for Reflagging142
a) 1958 Convention on the High Seas143
b) 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea144
c) 1986 United Nations Conference on Conditions for Registration of Ships145
3. Domestic Standards for Reflagging146
4. Application of the Reflagging Standards147
a) The International Standards147
b) The Domestic Standards148
c) Conclusion152
II. United States Presence in the Persian Gulf152
1. Introduction152
2. Freedom of the Seas154
a) Historical Background154
b) Freedom of Navigation155
c) Passage Through Hormuz Strait156
aa) United States and Iranian Positions156
bb) State Practice in the Persian Gulf158
cc) Analysis of the Claims159
III. The Mining of the Persian Gulf160
1. International Law on Minin160
a) 1907 Hague Convention160
b) The Nicaragua Case161
2. The Iranian Mine-Laying Incident of 22 September 1987162
3. Analysis of the Claims163
IV. Conclusion165
Dieter Fleck: Rules of Engagement for Maritime Forces and the Limitation of the Use of Force under the UN Charter166
I. Historical Background167
II. Legal Principles175
1. Relevance of the Definition of Aggression?176
2. Armed Attack177
3. Isolated Armed Attacks178
4. Low Intensity Conflicts179
5. Reprisals180
6. Use of Force which is Not Prohibited180
7. Conclusion181
III. Present Issues182
1. Hostile Act and Hostile Intent182
2. Maritime Exclusion Zones183
3. General and Specific Content185
4. Deterrence and Confidence-Building185
5. Conclusion186
Gerhard Hafner: Bemerkungen zur Funktion und Bestimmung der Betroffenheit im Völkerrecht anhand des Binnenstaates188
I. Einleitung188
II. Funktion des Begriffes der Betroffenheit188
1. Die Betroffenheit im völkerrechtlichen Vertragsrecht190
a) Artikel 41 para. 1 lit. b (i) und Artikel 58 para. 1 lit. b (i) WVK190
b) Artikel 60 para. 2 lit. b WVK191
2. Der verletzte Staat193
3. Der im justiziablen Streitfall befindliche Staat194
4. Der zur Verfahrensintervention berechtigte Staat195
5. Der betroffene Staat als Adressat des Völkergewohnheitsrechts196
a) Bildung des Völkergewohnheitsrechts196
b) Bindung an Völkergewohnheitsrecht197
aa) Folgen der mangelnden Beteiligung an der Bildung von Völkergewohnheitsrecht198
bb) Folgen des Unterlassens eines Protestes199
6. Gemeinsame Strukturen dieser Funktionen202
III. Die inhaltliche Bestimmung der „Betroffenheit“203
1. Die verschiedenen Bezeichnungen203
a) Artikel 41 para. 1 lit. b (i) und Artikel 58 para. 1 lit. b (i) WVK203
b) Artikel 60 WVK204
c) Im Rahmen der Staatenverantwortlichkeit206
d) Klagelegitimation207
e) Das Interventionsrecht in Streitverfahren209
f) Bildung von und Bindung an Völkergewohnheitsrecht211
2. Die gemeinsame Bestimmung der Betroffenheit213
a) Die Rahmenbedingungen der Betroffenheit213
aa) Völkerrechtskonformität213
bb) Die Individualisierbarkeit der Betroffenheit214
b) Kriterien und Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Betroffenheit214
aa) Umweltfaktoren214
bb) Verhalten216
cc) Motivation216
dd) Ziele staatlichen Verhaltens221
ee) Nachahmung222
ff) Falsifizierbarkeit222
3. Die normative Legitimierung zur Rechtsverfolgung223
IV. Schlußfolgerungen228
Summary228
Christopher C. Joyner: The 1988 IMO Convention on the Safety of Maritime Navigation: Towards a Legal Remedy for Terrorism at Sea231
I. Introduction231
II. Defining the Offence: Scope and Effect232
1. Ambiguities of Terrorism as an International Crime232
2. Offences under the IMO Convention238
3. Piracy and Maritime Terrorism240
4. Insurgency and Maritime Terrorism244
5. Concluding Observations on the Offence247
III. Jurisdictional Reach of the IMO Convention248
1. Jurisdictional Scope of the Convention248
2. Extradition and Prosecution under the Convention253
3. Ancillary Provisions of the Convention256
IV. Appraisal of the Convention257
V. Conclusion262
Francesco Francioni: Maritime Terrorism and International Law: The Rome Convention of 1988264
I. Background264
II. Scope and Substance of the Convention270
1. Definition of the Offence270
2. Official Terrorism273
3. The Geographic Scope274
4. Straits275
5. Types of Vessels276
6. Jurisdiction277
7. The Duty to Prosecute or Extradite280
8. Mutual Assistance and Co-operation282
9. Dispute Settlement283
III. Main Deficiencies283
IV. Neglected Issues286
V. Conclusion288
Emil Konstantinov: International Terrorism and International Law290
I. Introduction290
II. The Concept of „International Terrorism“291
III. Individual „International Terrorism“296
IV. State Terrorism300
V. National Liberation Movements and International Terrorism303
VI. Conclusion307
Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na’im: Islamic Ambivalence to Political Violence: Islamic Law and International Terrorism308
I. Political Violence and International Terrorism310
1. Terrorism in Historical and Comparative Perspectives311
2. Defining Terrorism in the Modern Context311
3. The Moral Dimension313
4. A Legal Definition of Terrorism313
II. Nature and Sources of Islamic Law315
1. The Sources and Development of Shari’a316
2. The Shi’a Perspective(s)318
3. The Nature and Modern Application of Shari’a320
a) The Nature of Shari’a320
b) Historical Application of Shari’a321
c) Contemporary Application of Shari’a322
III. Islamic International Law in Historical Context323
1. Impact of the Historical Context on the Principles of Shari’a323
2. Islamic International Law in the Present Context324
IV. Shari’a and Political Violence325
1. Antagonism and Use of Force Against Non-Muslims325
2. Regulation of Use of Force and Peace Treaties330
3. Implications for Conduct of Individual Persons and Groups332
V. Towards an Islamic Contribution to the Rule of Law in International Relations334
L. C. Green: Terrorism, the Extradition of Terrorists and the ‘Political Offence‘ Defence338
Werner Ader: International Law and the Discretion of the State to Handle Hostage Incidents – cui bono?373
I.374
II.393
III.414
Robert A. Friedlander: So Proudly They Failed: The Reagan Administration and the Gradual Disintegration of U.S. Counter-Terror Policy416
I. Preview: Jimmy Carter and the Iranian Hostage Crisis416
II. Reagan’s First Term – Rhetoric versus Reality422
III. Reagan’s Second Term, Part I – TWA 847, Achille Lauro, and the Libyan Raid430
IV. Reagan’s Second Term, Part II – Iran-Contra: Why Did It Happen and What Does It Mean?439
V. Postscript: U.S. Counter-Terrorism and the Reagan Era in Perspective445
Wilhelm Wengler: Völkerrechtliche Schranken der Beeinflussung auslandsverknüpften Verhaltens durch Maßnahmen des staatlichen Rechts449
Summary478
Leo J. Raskind: The Continuing Process of Refining and Adapting Copyright Principles479
I. Introduction479
II. The Historical Perspective482
III. The Shifting Basis of Map Protection485
IV. Suggested Alternative500
V. Conclusion509
Klaus-Jürgen Kuss: Judicial Review of Administrative Decisions in the Soviet Union and other East European Countries511
I. Introduction: Historical Background511
II. Post-Revolutionary Development of Judicial Review of Administrative Decisions in Russia/the Soviet Union516
III. The Statute of 30 June 1987519
1. Theoretical Bases519
2. Object of Review: Actions of Officials519
3. Right of Complaint523
4. Organization of Procedure524
5. Powers of Court526
6. Judicial Review of Administration and Reform of Justice527
IV. Post-War Development of Judicial Review of Administrative Decisions in other East European Countries528
1. Poland529
2. Czechoslovakia534
3. Hungary538
4. Yugoslavia542
5. Romania545
6. Bulgaria548
7. German Democratic Republic551
V. Summary: Comparative Analysis552
Reinhard Müller and Mario Müller: Co-operation as a Basic Principle of Legal Régimes for Areas Beyond National Sovereignty – with Special Regard to Outer Space Law554
I. The Obligation to Co-operate in General International Law554
II. Characteristic Elements of the Legal Régimes for Areas Beyond National Sovereignty556
III. Substantiating the Peaceful Use and Legal Issues of Co-operation559
1. The High Seas559
2. Antarctica560
3. Outer Space and Celestial Bodies561
a) Present International Law and the Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space561
b) International Co-operation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes563
c) Co-operation and Prohibition of Appropriation569
IV. Result572
V. Conclusion573
NOTES AND COMMENTS575
Thomas Roeser: The Arms Embargo of the UN Security Council against South Africa: Legal and Practical Aspects575
I. Introduction575
II. Arms Supplies as a Topic of the SC576
1. The Hitherto Existing Embargo Resolutions with the Exception of South Africa577
2. The Steps of the SC against South Africa578
III. The Legal Effects of S/Res. 418 (1977)581
1. Legal Nature of the Arms Embargo581
a) Article 41 of the UN Charter as a Legal Basis for a Mandatory Arms Embargo of the SC581
b) The Conflict in the Southern Africa as a „Threat to the Peace“582
2. Legal Obligations of the States Resulting from the Arms Embargo of the SC586
3. Arms Supplies to the South African Liberation Movements589
IV. Practical Problems in the Implementation of S/Res. 418 (1977): The Determination of the Embargo Object590
I. The Term of Arms in the Work of the United Nations: The List of the „Collective Measures Committee“591
2. The Definition of „Arms and Related Matériel“ in the SC Resolutions Against South Africa592
Thomas Fitschen: Closing the PLO Observer Mission to the United Nations in New York: The Decisions of the International Court of Justice and the U.S. District Court, Southern District of New York596
I. Introduction596
II. Background of the Dispute597
III. Applicability of the Obligation to Arbitrate under Section 21 of the United Nations Headquarters Agreement of 20 June 1947 – The Advisory Opinion of 26 April 1988605
1. The Proceeding of the Court605
2. Reasoning of the Advisory Opinion606
a) Existence of a „Dispute“ in the Sense of Section 21609
b) Qualification of the Dispute611
c) Dispute not Being Settled by Negotiation or other Agreed Mode of Settlement612
IV. ‘United States v. The Palestine Liberation Organization et al.‘: The Decision of the United States District Court, Southern District of New York613
1. The Position of the Plaintiff613
2. The United Nations as amicus curiae614
3. The Position of the Defendants615
4. The Decision of the District Court615
a) Jurisdiction of the Court616
b) Scope and Content of the Headquarters Agreement617
c) Conflict Between the ATA and the Headquarters Agreement619
d) Conclusion620
Volker Röben: A Report on Effective Protection of Minorities622
I. Introduction622
II. Protection of Minorities under the League of Nations626
III. The Protection of Minorities under the UN629
IV. Formal and Material Possibilities of the Protection of Minorities under Modern International Law633
V. Concluding Remarks639
REPORT640
Dørte Pardo López: Die Tätigkeit des Europarates im Jahre 1987640
I. Organisatorische Fragen Allgemeines640
II. Behandlung allgemeinpolitischer Themen im Europarat641
III. Rechtsvereinheitlichung und rechtliche Zusammenarbeit zwischen den Mitgliedstaaten, Verträge und Empfehlungen646
IV. Schutz der Menschenrechte650
DOCUMENTATION681
Declaration of Independence of the Palestinian State681
In the Name of God, The Compassionate, The Merciful DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE681
Book Reviews685
Books Received730
List of Contributors740

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