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German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht.

Vol. 33 (1990).

VerlagDuncker & Humblot GmbH
Erscheinungsjahr2013
Seitenanzahl542 Seiten
ISBN9783428470518
FormatPDF
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Inhaltsverzeichnis
Contents6
ARTICLES10
René Barents: The Community and the Unity of the Common Market. Some Reflections on the Economic Constitution of the Community10
I. Introduction10
II. The Unity of the Common Market11
1. The Internal Market12
2. Freedom of Trade and Undistorted Competition13
3. Market Unity14
III. The Common Market and the Member States16
1. Free Movement16
a) The Country of Destination Principle16
b) The Country of Origin Principle16
2. Undistorted Competition19
a) Distortion of Competition19
b) Disparities20
3. Discrimination(s) and Distortion(s)21
IV. The Common Market and the Community22
1. Unity of the Market and Non-discrimination22
2. The Case Law23
3. Non-Discrimination or Non-interference With Trade25
V. Non-Discrimination and Differentiation27
1. Discrimination and Renationalization27
2. Duty to Differentiate27
3. Differentiation in the Framework of Discretionary Policy29
4. Complementary Actions of Member States31
5. Proportionality and Non-Discrimination31
VI. Exceptions to the Unity of the Common Market32
1. Emergencies and Absence of Alternatives32
2. Transitional and Political Difficulties33
a) The Claw-back34
b) A More Lenient Approach?36
VII. Market Unity as an Element of the Economic Constitution of the Community36
Michael K. Addo: A Critical Analysis of the Perennial International Economic Law Problems of the EEC-ACP Relationship38
I. Introduction38
II. The Development and Ethos of Lomé41
III. The Recurring Problems45
1. Self-interest in a Co-operative Setting45
a) The Effect of the Shift in Legal Basis from Co-existence to Co-operation45
b) The Place of Sovereignty in Unequal Co-operation47
IV. Accountability Through Justiciability55
1. Other A ttempts at Essential A ccountability63
a) Participation63
b) Human Rights64
V. Conclusion66
Iain Cameron and Frank Horn: Reservations to the European Convention on Human Rights: The Belilos Case70
I. Introduction70
II. The Facts of the Case70
III. The Approach of the Commission72
IV. The Approach of the Court75
V. Issues Raised by the Case77
1.78
a) The Distinction Between Reservations and Interpretative Declarations78
b) The Scope of the Swiss Proviso80
c) The Nature of the Swiss Proviso82
2.88
a) The Competence of the Commission and the Court to Determine the Validity of Reservations88
b) A Common European Public Order93
c) Implications for Other Treaty Régimes96
3. The Prohibition of General Reservations98
a) The Concept of Generality100
b) Imprecise Reservations100
c) Specific Reservations to „General Reservations“101
d) „Overspill“ Reservations104
e) Flexible Reservations104
f) The Relationship Between Incompatibility and Generality106
4. The Requirement of a Brief Statement Under Article 64 (2)110
5.116
a) The Effects of Invalid Reservations116
b) Subsequent Developments118
6. Implications for Other Reservations to the Convention120
a) Austria122
b) Federal Republic of Germany (FRG)123
c) Finland124
d) France124
e) Ireland125
f) Liechtenstein125
g) Malta126
h) Portugal127
i) San Marino127
j) Spain127
k) Switzerland127
1) The Turkish and Cypriot Declarations Under Article 25128
VI. Conclusions129
Karl Zemanek: Austria and the European Community131
I. Introduction131
II. Austria's Permanent Neutrality132
1. The Concept of Permanent Neutrality132
a) Permanent Neutrality as a Legal Status132
b) Permanent Neutrality as a Function of Balance of Power134
c) A Comprehensive View of Permanent Neutrality136
2. Permanent Neutrality in the Post-War European System137
a) Austria's Situation in 1955137
b) The Neutrals in the European System and the Challenge of European Integration138
c) A New European System?141
III. Neutrality and EEC Membership143
1. Situations Requiring Specific Neutral Action144
a) A „War“ in Which One or More EEC Members Confront One or More Non-Members144
aa) Transit145
bb) Uniform Application of Restrictions or Prohibitions Concerning the Export of War Material146
b) A „War“ Between Non-Members of the EEC147
c) A Politically-Motivated Embargo in Peace Time147
2. The Central Issues148
a) The EEC Practice of Trade Embargoes149
b) The Exception of „Arms, Munitions and War Material“: Article 223 EECT153
c) The Exception of Special Situations: Article 224 EECT155
aa) The Situations155
bb) The Measures157
cc) The Limitations159
d) Control of the Freedom: Article 225 EECT160
IV. Neutrality and the Political Evolution of the EC162
1. Building Political Identity: The EPC162
2. Moving Towards Union: Are There Limitations for a Permanently Neutral State?165
Donald M. McRae and L. Rita Theil: The Implications of Europe 1992: A Canadian Perspective167
I. Introduction167
II. Canada and World Trade168
1. Constitutional Framework168
2. The International Trade Framework169
a) Canada and the GATT169
b) Canada-United States Free Trade170
III. Canada and the European Community171
IV. The Impact of 1992 on Canada: An Overview173
V. The Impact of 1992 on Canada: The Telecommunications Industry174
1. Introduction: The Canadian Telecommunications Industry174
2. The Telecommunications Industry in the EC: The Imperative to Restructure175
3. The Impact of Increased Market Size and Competition177
4. The Impact of the Lowering of Technical Barriers and the Setting of Standards178
5. The Opening of Public Procurement181
VI. The Problem of Reciprocity182
VII. Conclusion183
Thomas Läufer: Haushalt und Finanzen als Konfliktfeld der EG-Organe und der EG-Mitgliedstaaten185
I. Einleitung185
II. Haushaltsstruktur der EG186
III. Haushaltsverfahren der EG188
IV. Haushaltskonflikte seit 1975190
1. Kompetenzabgrenzung durch Ausgabenklassifizierung190
2. Anwendung des Höchstsatzes192
3. Mittelbewilligung und Rechtsetzung195
a) Haushaltsplan als Rechtsgrundlage195
b) Ausgabenplafondierung durch Ratsbeschluß197
4. Kapitalhaushalt der EG198
5. Überblick über die Haushaltskonflikte198
V. Interinstitutionelle Zusammenarbeit beim Haushalt199
1. Konzertierung199
a) Zweck199
b) Praxis203
c) Bewertung205
2. Haushaltstrialog206
a) Zweck206
b) Praxis207
c) Bewertung208
3. Haushaltsdisziplin209
a) Zweck209
aa) Maßnahmen von 1984209
bb) Beschlüsse von 1988211
b) Praxis212
c) Bewertung213
VI. Reformempfehlungen213
Summary215
M. Fitzmaurice: Common Market Participation in the Legal Regime of the Baltic Sea Fisheries217
I. Introduction217
II. Accession of EC to the Gdansk Convention217
1. Effect of Introduction of the EC Common Fisheries Policy217
2. Summary of the Provision of the EC Fisheries Policy218
3. Accession of the EC to the Gdansk Convention221
III. Recommendations of the IBSFC224
1. The Veto Procedure224
2. The Opting-Out Procedure224
IV. Conservation Measures Since Amendment of the Gdansk Convention225
1. 1984 Fisheries Rules225
2. The Rôle of the ICES226
3. The Effectiveness of the IBSFC227
V. Exclusive Economic Zones228
1. Introduction of EEZ by USSR228
2. Legal Rights over Fishing in the EEZ229
3. Regulations of Fisheries in the EEZ of the USSR230
VI. Fisheries and Delimitation Agreements between Baltic States231
1. Introductory231
2. The New Delimitation Agreements232
3. Fisheries Agreements with the EC Generally234
4. Fishing Agreements between Sweden and the EC236
VII. Conclusions237
Federico Durân Lopez: The Harmonisation of the Labour Systems of the Member States of the E.E.C. in the Perspective of European Unity239
I. The Treaty of Rome and Social Objectives239
II. The Single Act and the Demands, in Social Areas, for European Unity245
III. The Harmonisation of Labour Regulations in the Internal Market249
Ruth Nielsen: The Contract of Employment in the Member States of the European Communities and in Community Law261
I. Introduction261
II. National Differences, a Comparative Analysis263
1. The Concept of the Contract of Employment263
2. Consent, Object, Cause and Consideration in Contract Law263
3. Defining Elements of the Contract of Employment: Subordination264
4. Subjective Scope of the Contract of Employment and the Employment Relationship265
III. Freedom of Contract265
1. The General Principle266
2. Atypical Employment Contracts268
a) Fixed Term Contracts268
b) Temporary Work Contracts269
c) Part-Time Employment Contracts270
3. Form and Proof of the Contract of Employment272
4. Recruitment Procedures and Worker Participation272
5. Written form and Language requirements273
a) Continental European Countries274
b) Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom274
IV. Written Particulars275
V. Community Law276
1. Stages in the Development of Community Law276
2. Why is the Law on the Contract of Employment of Interest to the Community?280
a) Distortion of Competition280
b) Free Movement280
c) Improvement of Working Conditions281
3. Is the Contract of Employment Covered by Existing Community Legislation?281
4. Current Proposals284
Erika Szyszczak: L'Espace Sociale Européenne: Reality, Dreams, or Nightmares?287
I. Introduction287
II. Legal and Political Problems With the Social Charter289
III. The Impact of the Equal Treatment Programme294
1. The Development of the Equal Treatment Programme294
2. The Impact of the Equal Treatment Programme in the United Kingdom300
3. Enforcement of Community Rights302
IV. Direct Effect and Supremacy of Community Law303
V. Towards a More Effective Enforcement of Community Social Rights?306
VI. Conclusion309
Rüdiger Wolfrum: Purposes and Principles of International Environmental Law311
I. Introduction311
II. The Elements of International Law Concerning the Protection of the Environment312
1. Prohibition of Transfrontier Damage to Components of the Environment312
2. Use and Protection of Commonly Shared Natural Resources321
3. The Utilization and Protection of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction324
4. Environmental Problems of Global Relevance330
Wolfgang Spröte: Negotiations on a United Nations Code of Conduct on Transnational Corporations334
I. Introduction334
II. The Background of the Negotiations on the Code of Conduct335
1. The Developments in the Early Seventies335
2. Thirteen Years of Negotiations on the Code of Conduct337
III. The Structure and the Main Provisions of the Latest Draft Code of Conduct340
IV. Main Outstanding Issues and Chances for Their Resolution347
Uwe Jenisch: Die Ostsee als Wirtschafts- und Lebensraum Wirtschaft, Umweltschutz, Seerecht352
I. Geopolitische und wirtschaftliche Fakten352
II. Auswirkungen des neuen Internationalen Seerechts359
1. Küstenmeergrenzen360
2. Meerengen363
3. Sonder status für die Ostsee?364
4. Fischereizonen, Festlandsockel- und Wirtschaftszonen366
5. Seegrenzprobleme370
a) Dänemark / Schweden370
b) Gotland-Problem371
c) Bornholm-Problem371
d) Oderbucht372
e) Offene Seegrenzprobleme375
III. Fischereizusammenarbeit / Danziger Übereinkommen375
IV. Umweltschutz/Helsinki-Übereinkommen379
Summary385
Jagdeep S. Bhandari: International Debt Litigation in United States Courts388
I. Introduction388
II. Types of Cases389
1. Loan Transactions390
2. Eurodollar Transactions390
3. Expropriation Cases391
III. Defenses of Debtors391
1. Sovereign Immunity391
a) Who May Plead the Defense393
b) When the Defense May Be Successfully Asserted394
aa) The Waiver Exception (28 USC § 1605 (a) (1))394
bb) The Expropriation Exception396
cc) The Commercial Activity Exception396
2. Comity399
3. Forum Non Conveniens401
a) The Nature of the Forum Non Conveniens Doctrine402
b) Obtaining a Forum Non Conveniens Dismissal403
4. Sovereign Compulsion405
5. Article VIII 2(b)406
6. Act of State409
a) The Bernstein Exception411
b) The Hickenlooper Amendment411
c) Counterclaim Exception412
d) The Treaty Exception412
e) The Territorial Exception: Situs Rules413
f) The Commercial Activity Exception415
7. Other Defenses: Force Majeure, Supervening Illegality, Legal Impossibility418
IV. Executive and Judicial Participation421
V. Conclusion426
NOTES AND COMMENTS427
Michael Bothe: International Regulation of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Waste427
I. Introduction427
II. A Brief History of Attempts made to deal with the Problem of Transboundary Movement of Waste428
III. The Basic Obligations according to the Basel Convention429
IV. The Scope of Application of the Basel Convention Régime431
1. Definitions431
2. Nuclear Waste432
V. Additional and Collateral Measures433
1. The Prevention of Illegal Traffic433
2. Reduction of the Generation of Waste434
3. Adequate Treatment and Disposal434
4. The Principle of Subsidiarity434
5. Transparency435
VI. The Problem of Responsibility435
VII. Conclusion435
César Sepulveda: Methods and Procedures for the Creation of Legal Norms in the International System of States: An Inquiry into the Progressive Development of International Law in the Present Era437
I. Preliminary Observations437
II. Characteristics of International Law in Our Time438
III. „Traditional“ Sources and Modern Processes for the Formation of International Juridical Rules441
IV. The Relationship Between International Politics and International Law446
V. Parliamentary Diplomacy in the Formation Process of International Legal Norms447
VI. The Quasi-Legislative Function of the General Assembly and Other Organs of the United Nations449
VII. The Resolutions of the Ad-Hoc Conferences as Processes for the Creation of Norms of International Law453
VIII. The Codifying Function of the United Nations' International Law Commission456
REPORT465
Carsten Krage: Die Tätigkeit des Nordischen Rates im Jahre 1989465
I. Die ordentliche Jahrestagung465
1. Die Generaldebatte467
2. Die Fachausschüsse471
a) Der Wirtschaftsausschuß471
b) Der Sozial- und Umweltausschuß473
c) Der Kommunikationsausschuß476
d) Der Rechtsausschuß477
e) Der Kulturausschuß479
f) Der Haushalts- und Kontrollausschuß481
II. Die außerordentliche Sitzung481
III. Sonstige Ereignisse485
Summary488
Book Reviews491
Books Received539
List of Contributors545

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