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German Yearbook of International Law / Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht.

Vol. 28 (1985).

VerlagDuncker & Humblot GmbH
Erscheinungsjahr2013
Seitenanzahl555 Seiten
ISBN9783428461486
FormatPDF
KopierschutzWasserzeichen/DRM
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Preis119,90 EUR

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Inhaltsverzeichnis
CONTENTS6
ARTICLES10
Alfred de Zayas / Jakob Th. Möller / Torkel Opsahl: Application of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights under the Optional Protocol by the Human Rights Committee10
I. Introduction10
1. Procedure on Admissibility and Merits10
a) Admissibility14
b) Merits15
c) Interim Measures15
2. Evidence and Burden of Proof16
3. Individual Opinions17
4. Duration of the Procedure17
5. Progress of Work17
II. Issues Considered by the Committee18
1. Criteria for Admissibility under the Optional Protocol18
a) The Standing of the Author18
b) The Victim19
c) Date of Entry into Force of the Covenant and the Optional Protocol20
d) Individuals Subject to a State Party's Jurisdiction21
e) Preclusion under Article 5 (2) (a)22
f) Reservations by States Parties24
g) Exhaustion of Domestic Remedies25
h) Incompatibility26
i) Substantiation of Allegations27
j) Abuse of the Right of Submission27
k) Competence of the Committee vis-à-vis National Law and Decisions28
2. Substantive Issues under the Covenant31
a) Article 6: The Right to Life32
b) Article 7: The Right not to be Subjected to Torture or to Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment35
c) Article 9: The Right to Liberty and Security of Person37
aa) Arbitrary Arrest and Detention (Article 9[1])37
bb) The Right to be Brought Promptly Before a Judge and Tried within a Reasonable Time (Article 9 [3])39
cc) The Right to Challenge the Lawfulness of one's Arrest and Detention (Article 9 [4])40
dd) The Right to Compensation for Unlawful Arrest or Detention (Article 9 [5])41
e) Article 12: The Right to Freedom of Movement and to Leave any Country43
f) Article 13: The Right of an Alien not to be Expelled Arbitrarily from his Country of Residence44
g) Article 14: The Right to a Fair Hearing45
aa) Fair and Public Hearing by a Competent, Independent and Impartial Tribunal (Article 14 [ l ])47
bb) Minimum Guarantees i n the Determination of any Criminal Charge (Article 14 [3])48
h) Article 15: Nulla poena sine leg52
i) Article 17: The Right to Freedom from Interference with one's Privacy, Family, Home, or Correspondence53
j) Article 18: The Right to Freedom of Thought, Conscience and Religion54
k) Article 19: The Right to Hold Opinions, Freedom of Expression55
l) Article 20: Prohibition of War Propaganda and the Right to Protection f r om Advocacy of Racial or Religious Hatred57
m) Article 22: Freedom of Association58
n) Article 23: The Right of the Family to Protection59
o) Article 25: The Right to Take Part in Political Activity60
p) Article 26: Discrimination on the Ground of Sex61
q) Article 27: Protection of Minorities62
3. Derogation from Obligations under the Covenant62
III. Conclusion64
César Sepúlveda: The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights of the Organization of American States: 25 Years of Evolution and Endeavour66
I. Introduction66
II. Creation of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights67
III. Development and Work of the Commission69
1. From 1960 through 197369
2. From 1974 to 197971
3. The Phase between 1980 and 198574
IV. The Methods of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights80
V. The Commission and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights84
VI. Politics and Law in the Work of the Commission85
VII. Future Prospects87
Martin Bullinger: Freedom of Expression and Information: An Essential Element of Democracy89
Part 1: Introduction91
1. Implications of Satellites and Cable Networks91
2. Different Aspects of the Convention and the Treaty of Rome93
3. Freedom of Expression by New Electronic Media as an Element of Democracy93
4. Individual Freedom of Expression as the Primary Subject of this Report94
Part 2: Democracy in the Sense of Art. 10 of the Convention94
1. Freedom of Expression as a Foundation of Democracy94
2. Pluralistic Democracy95
3. Prerequisites of a Pluralistic Democracy96
4. Different Meanings of Freedom of Expression in Pluralistic and Non-Pluralistic Democracies97
Part 3: Individual Freedom of Expression and Information as an Element of Democracy97
I. Freedom of Expression in General98
1. A Prerequisite of Democratic Decision-Making., an Element of the Forming of Public Opinion98
2. Position of Aliens99
3. Content of Expression100
a) Offending or Shocking Minority Statements Included100
b) Enhanced Freedom of Political Expression100
c) Commercial Character not Excluding Freedom of Expression102
4. Ways and Means103
a) Technical Ways and Means103
b) Financial Means104
5. Purely Negative Freedom or Necessity of „Affirmative“ State Action105
II. Freedom to Receive Information and Ideas: Specific Aspects106
1. Freedom to Take Notice of Illegally Disseminated Information and Ideas106
2. Freedom to Seek Information106
3. Right to Information107
a) Right to be Generally Informed by Mass Media and Public Authorities107
b) Individual Access to Information Held by Public Authorities108
Part 4: Freedom of Expression and Information by Print Media as an Element of Democracy109
I. Non-Periodical Publications110
1. Leaflets, Tracts110
2. Books110
II. Periodicals, in particular Newspapers111
1. Declining Plurality of Newspapers111
2. „Public Task“ of Newspapers , Shortcomings Concerning Individual Freedom of Expression112
3. State Duty to Affirm Freedom of Expression113
4. Means of Affirming Freedom of Expression114
5. Compensation by Other Media for Insufficient Newspaper Plurality115
Part 5: Freedom of Expression and Information by Electronic Media as an Element of Democracy116
A. General Remarks116
B. Radio and Television117
I. Freedom of Expression by Radio and Television in General117
1. Traditional Public Monopoly and its Impact on the Interpretation of Art. 10117
a) Licence Clause Originally Interpreted as Indiscriminately Authorizing a Public Monopoly (1968)117
b) Possible Impact of a Public Monopoly on Freedom of Expression118
c) Licence Clause Partly Reconsidered, (Affirmative Duty, Access to Broadcasting Time only in Exceptional Circumstances)118
d) Reluctance to Grant Access to Individuals or Groups to Public Broadcasting in the Member States119
2. Changing Factual and Legal Conditions of Broadcasting as a Possible Inducement to further Reconsider Art. 10120
a) Progressive Abandonment of the Public Broadcasting Monopoly in the Member States121
b) Structural Evolution of Radio and Television Underlying the Abandonment of the Monopoly122
c) Factors and Conditions of a Reorientation on the European and National Level124
3. Individual Freedom to Impart Information and Ideas by Broadcasting (Access to Broadcasting)126
a) Access of Programme-Providers to Private Broadcasting126
aa) Access to Transmission Facilities127
bb) Access to Programme Licences128
cc) Restrictions Affecting Access, in particular Advertising Regulations128
b) Access of Programme-Providers to Public Broadcasting130
c) Access of Foreign Programme-Providers to Inland Broadcasting130
aa) Foreign Providers of Normal Inland Programmes131
bb) Foreign Programme-Providers of Inland Programmes for Inland Alien Communities132
cc) Access of Foreigners to Public Broadcasting132
d) Access of Foreign Broadcasters to Inland Retransmission133
aa) Programmes Transmitted by Direct Broadcasting Satellites133
bb) Programmes Transmitted by Telecommunication Satellites134
cc) Satellites Creating a Need for a Harmonization of National Broadcasting Laws135
II. Freedom to Receive Radio and Television Programmes135
1. Freedom to Receive Radio and Television Programmes in General136
a) Inapplicability of the Licence Clause136
b) Right to use an Individual Antenna136
c) Right to Receive by Community Antennas all Programmes Normally Available in the Air136
2. Freedom to Receive Satellite Programmes in Particular137
a) Freedom to Receive Direct Broadcasting Satellite (DBS) Programmes137
b) Freedom to Receive Programmes Transmitted by Telecommunication Satellites138
C. New Forms of Electromagnetic Delivery (New Electronic Services)139
I. The Phenomenon139
II. Freedom of Expression by New Electronic Services139
1. Inapplicability of the Licence Clause Concerning „Broadcasting“ (Art. 10 [1] 3)139
2. Possible and Partial Applicability of the License Clause Concerning Cinema Enterprises (Art. 10 [1] 3)140
3. Freedom to Seek Information by New Electronic Services141
III. New Electronic Information Services as a Link between Print and Electronic Media, between Individual and Mass Communication141
Part 6: Summary141
Albert Bleckmann: The Subjective Right in Public International Law145
Hâkon Eriksen: The Legal Status of the Sami in Norway164
I. Introduction164
1. The General Situation of the Sami164
2. Norwegian Sami Policy165
3. The Sami's Demands165
II. Protection of Culture: Language166
1. International Law166
2. Norwegian Law168
a) Sami in the Nine-Year Basic School168
aa) Legal Situation168
bb) Proposals170
b) Public Administration and the Sami Language170
aa) Legal Situation170
bb) Proposals171
c) Other Factors of Significance for the Sami Language171
d) Proposal for Incorporating Provisions on Protection of the Sami Culture in the Constitution172
III. The Right to Land and Water172
1. International Law173
2. Norwegian Law174
a) Recognized Rights over Land and Water175
b) The Sami's Claims to Land and Water Based on Ancient Use177
c) Proposals179
IV. Self-Determination and Influence on Decisions180
1. International Law180
2. Norwegian Law181
a) Legal Situation181
b) Proposals for Regulations for Self-Government183
V. Final Remarks185
Wilhelm Wengler: Neue australische Verfassungsrechtsprechung zur Rassendiskriminierung187
Summary194
Jost Delbrück and Klaus Dicke: The Christian Peace Ethic and the Doctrine of Just War from the Point of View of International Law195
Introductory Remarks195
I. The Doctrine of Just War in the Development of International Law until the End of World War I197
II. The bellum iustum Doctrine in the Light of the Prohibition of the Use of Force in Modern International Law200
1. The Abolishment of the Liberum ius ad bellum in Modern International Law201
2. The ius in hello203
3. International Law Interpretations of the Existing Law with Regard to the Doctrine of Just War204
III. Tendencies towards a Renaissance of the Doctrine of Just War208
Trutz Rendtorff: Christian Ethics and the Doctrine of Just War A Re-evaluation in the Nuclear Age210
I. A New Debate on the Doctrine of Just War?210
1. Arguments Concerning a Renewal of the Debate „Christian Ethics and the Doctrine of Just War“210
2. „Justification“ of War? Theological and Ethical Perspectives212
II. The Meaning and Intention of the Doctrine of Just War215
1. Its Reception into Christian Ethics215
2. The Profile of the Doctrine of Just War217
a) lus ad bellum217
b) Iusta causa217
c) Intentio recta217
3. The Historical Relevance of the Theory of „Just War“218
III. Ethical Problems of the Doctrine of Just War219
1. The Proportionality of Means and Ends in the Nuclear Age219
2. The Crisis of the Concept of Peace221
IV. From the Doctrine of „Just War“ to the Doctrine of „Just Peace“223
1. Thinking Towards Peace223
2. The Concept of Peace224
3. The Role of Military Force225
4. The Problem of Peace in the Conflict of Systems226
5. Internal and External Peace228
V. The Churches and Peace229
Elmar Rauch: Military Uses of the Oceans230
I. Introduction230
II. Law of the Sea Convention and Naval Missions234
III. Analysis of the Treaty Provisions Concerning Military Activities239
1. Peaceful Uses of the Sea239
2. Innocent Passage243
3. Transit Passage245
4. Archipelagic Sea Lanes Passage250
5. Exclusive Economic Zone251
6. Installations on the Continental Shelf and in the EEZ254
7. Enclosed and Semi-Enclosed Seas259
8. High Seas259
9. Deep Sea-Bed and Ocean Floor260
10. Protection of the Marine Environment261
11. Marine Scientific Research261
12. Settlement of Disputes266
IV. Conclusions268
L. F. E. Goldie: Special Problems Concerning Deep Seabed Mining in the Event of Non-Participation in UNCLOS: Prospect for a Reciprocating States Régime, Site Certainty, Investment Assurance and Potential Litigation269
I. Introduction269
II. Equity as an Instrumental Value (Efficiency) and as Categorical (Justice) – A Preliminary Stipulatio269
III. Equity in International Law271
1. Equity and the „General Principles of Law Recognized by Civilized Nations“271
a) Equity and the „General Principles“ Clause271
b) The „General Principles of Law“ and the „Ex Aequo et Bono“ Clause272
2. The International Functions of Equity Under the „General Principles“ Clause273
a) The Relation of International Equity (in the Sense of the Equitable Rules Accepted under Article 38 [1] [c] ) to International Law273
b) A Provisional Definition274
IV. Instrumental Equities and Individual States' Claims to Newly Available Natural Resources275
1. Introduction275
a) An Overview275
b) A Preliminary Explanation – And an Example276
2. Received Instrumental Equities in International Law276
a) Abuse of Rights (and Unjust Enrichment Arising Therefrom)276
b) Reliance and Notice as Equities277
c) The Equities of Estoppel and Laches277
d) Proportionality as an Instrumental Equity277
V. Relating Distributive Equities and the Equities of Wealth Maximization278
1. The Question of Distributive Justice278
a) A Perspective278
b) The Categorical Equities and the Principle of Solidarity279
2. The Question of the „Right Mix“ in an International Justice System279
a) Comparing the Categorical and Instrumental Equities279
b) The Efficiency of the Equities of Wealth Enhancement280
c) The Ordering of Equities for the Ends of Justice280
d) Fairness and the Seabed Authority281
VI. The Law of the Sea Treaty: The Balance of Equities and the Effects of Negotiation and of Signature: The Montego Bay Avowals282
1. The Avowals – A Comment282
2. The Duty to Refrain from Conduct which may Defeat the „Object and Purpose“ of the Treaty283
a) Exposures Arising from Participation283
b) An Artificial Dilemma286
3. The Pre-Emption Argument286
4. Views from the Seabeds Committee (lus Tertii)288
VII. The Peaceful Co-Existence of Two or More Distinct Régimes289
1. Alternative Régimes289
a) Peaceful Co-Existence289
b) The „Mini-Treaty“ or „Reciprocal Regime“ Model – A Prototype290
2. A Problem of Pre-Emption292
3. A Proposed Blue Print293
VIII. Conclusion297
Uwe Jenisch: Sovereign Rights in the Arctic Maritime Policies and Practices after UNCLOS III298
I. Old and New Uses in the Arctic298
II. The New Maritime Zones304
III. Maritime Policy and Practice307
1. Norway307
2. Soviet Union313
3. USA/Alaska317
4. Canada318
5. Greenland / Denmark319
IV. The Central Part of the Arctic Ocean321
Hubertus Welsch: The London Dumping Convention and Sub-Seabed Disposal of Radioactive Waste323
I. The Ban on Dumping and the Concept of Dumping324
II. Interpretation of the Concept of Dumping on the Basis of the Text of the Convention, its Preamble and Annexes327
1. The Meaning of Dumping327
2. The Context of Article III. 1 (a) (i) of the LDC328
3. The Context of Article III. 1 of the LDC329
4. The Full Text of the Convention including the Preamble330
a) The Concepts of the „Marine Environment“ and „Pollution of the Sea“330
b) Reference to Resolution 2749 (XXV) of the General Assembly of the United Nations332
c) Other References in the Text of the Convention333
5. The Annexes of the Convention334
6. Interpretation of the Text of the Convention together with the Preamble and Annexes. Results335
III. Interpretation on the Basis of the International Atomic Energy Agency Definiton and Recommendations336
IV. Other Subsequent Agreements among the Contracting Parties338
V. Subsequent Practice by the Contracting Parties342
VI. Supplementary Means of Interpretation343
1. Interpretation on the Basis of Preparatory Work343
2. Interpretation by Reference to the Circumstances of the Conclusion of the Convention or by other Means352
VII. Result353
VIII. Future Solutions354
Mark M. Boguslavsky: Technology Transfer and International Law: the Soviet Approach356
I. Significance of International Technology Transfer and Definition of the Notion of such Transfer356
II. International Legal and Civil Legal Relations in the Transfer of Technology359
III. Principles of International Law and Transfer of Tedinology362
IV. International Legal Regulation of Transfer of Tedinology in Relations among CMEA Member Countries366
V. Conclusion370
Tobias Stoll: Proprietary Protection of Computer Software in National and International Perspective371
I. Introduction371
II. Technical Considerations372
III. Patents and Copyright as Basic Concepts of Proprietary Protection375
1. The Minor Role of Patent Law376
2. Copyright379
a) Objections against and Conditions of Protection380
b) Scope of Protection383
IV. Specialized Legislation in the Field of Computer Technology384
V. Discussions on a Copyright – Type Software Protection387
1. Prevalence of Economically-Orientated Reasoning388
2. The Demand for Proprietary Protection390
3. The Issue of Technology392
4. Limitations of Exclusionary Rights396
5. Efficiency of Legal Protection398
VI. International Aspects of Proprietary Protection of Computer Technology399
1. International Intellectual Property Protection as Applied to Computer Technology399
2. Options of International Protection401
3. Possible Areas of International Consensus404
4. The Technology Transfer Issue405
5. Advisability of Participating in International Protection406
6. Limitation of Rights and the Need for Differentiation408
7. Prospects of a Future International Protection Scheme409
Wolfgang Seiffert: Völkerrechtliche Aspekte der Verlängerung des Warschauer Paktes410
I. Form und Gründe für die Form der Verlängerung411
II. Die Wirkungen der Verlängerung415
III. Warschauer Pakt und Stationierung sowjetischer Truppen in seinen Mitgliedstaaten419
IV. Völkerrechtliche Struktur des Warschauer Paktes und machtpolitische Realitäten421
Summary424
NOTE AND COMMENT426
Roger D. Billings, Jr.: International Standards for Automotive Arbitration426
Angela Rapp: The Legal Limits of the Director – General s Discretionary Authority to Renew or not to Renew Fixed Term and Temporary Appointments. A Review of the Cases Decided by the Administrative Tribunal of the ILO436
I. Procedure437
II. The Decision not to Renew a Contract437
1. Earlier Judgements437
a) General Considerations437
b) Certain Pleas which Can Set Limitations on the Director-General's Discretionary Authority439
2. Subsequent Judgements440
REPORTS443
Wulf Hermann: Die Tätigkeit des Nordischen Rates im Jahre 1984443
I. Die Generaldebatte444
II. Die Fachausschüsse448
1. Der Wirtschaftsausschuß448
2. Der Kulturausschuß451
3. Der Sozial- und Umweltausschuß452
4. Der Verkehrsausschuß453
5. Der Rechtsausschuß454
Michael Pehlke: Die Europäischen Gemeinschaften im Jahre 1984457
I. Überblick457
II. Institutionelle Entwicklung459
III. Ausbau des Gemeinsamen Marktes462
IV. Politiken der Gemeinschaft465
V. Die Außenbeziehungen der Gemeinschaft471
VI. Rechtsprechung zum Gemeinschaftsrecht475
Regine Ludwig: Die Tätigkeit des Europarates im Jahre 1984479
I. Organisatorische Fragen Allgemeines479
II. Behandlung allgemeinpolitisdier Themen im Europarat480
III. Rechtsvereinheitlichung und Zusammenarbeit unter den Mitgliedstaaten Konventionen und Übereinkommen489
IV. Schutz der Menschenrechte492
a) Individualbeschwerden nach Art. 25 EMRK492
aa) Recht auf Freiheit und Sicherheit492
bb) Recht auf faires Verfahren494
cc) Dauer des Verfahrens495
dd) Respektierung des Rechts auf Eigentum496
ff) Recht auf Privatleben497
gg) Haftbedingungen497
hh) Verbot der Diskriminierung497
ii) Recht auf freie Meinungsäußerung498
b) Staatenbeschwerde nach Art. 24 EMRK498
DOCUMENTATION507
Nordischer Rat: Übereinkommen über die Zusammenarbeit zwischen Dänemark, Finnland, Island, Norwegen und Schweden (Helsinki-Abkommen)507
Geschäftsordnung des Nordischen Rates520
Book Reviews529
Books Received548
List of Contributors555

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